• Schild Mathematik Ost
Mathematische Strömungsmechanik

Oberseminar Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

Spectral analysis of neural network learning
Datum: 12.01.2023, 12:30 Uhr
Kategorie: Veranstaltung
Ort: Raum 40.03.003 (Emil Fischer Str. 40)
Vortragende: Dmitry Yarotsky

Neural networks are complex models, and their training - usually performed by some version of gradient descent
- is not easy to analyze theoretically. The problem becomes tractable for linearized networks, e.g., those trained
in the NTK regime or being close to convergence. In this setting the problem reduces to optimization of an
ill-conditioned quadratic problem, which can be described in terms of its spectral characteristics. We find that in
many realistic network training scenarios the respective spectral distributions are well-fitted by power laws, and
we show that these power laws can be derived theoretically under some reasonable assumptions. Under spectral
power laws, convergence of optimization also follows a power law, with different exponents depending on the
version of gradient descent. A particularly important case is the mini-batch stochastic gradient descent (SGD)
with momentum. This algorithm is characterized by a rich phase diagram with two convergence phases. We
derive an explicit theoretical stability condition for mini-batch SGD and demonstrate some other phenomena,
e.g. that in some problems the optimal momentum parameter has a negative value.